英语中的定语从句你知道多少?


来源:北一仁 日期:2012-8-5

   英语中的从句在考试中占了举足轻重的地位,不学好宾语从句、定语从句、状语从句,也就很难理解文章, 而且这些都是我们海口初中家教、海口高中家教的重点内容,下面为大家介绍定从句。

定语从句

I定语从句的定义
  在复合句中,修饰名词或者代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句所修饰的词叫做先行词。如在课本中,(a)The man who lives next to us sells vegetable. (b) You must do everything that I can do. 斜体部分是先行词。黑体部分是定语从句。第一句中定语从句修饰的是“the man ”这个名词,而在第二句当中修饰的是“everything”这个代词。其中,“who”和“that”叫做关系代词。应到定语从句的词有关系代词that, which, who, whom, whose 和关系副词where, when, why. 同时“as”也经常充当关系代词,引导定语从句。
II 关系代词that, which, who(whom)引导的定语从句(基本例句见课本)
  1,其中that, who(whom),都可以指人,那么他们在指人时有什么区别呢。[本条记忆技巧:用who 不用 that  的情况 “there be” “one,ones,anyone,nobody, those ” 被分割。***那里有(there)很多万(one)被那些人(those)分割。]
<1>先行词为those, one, anyone, nobody 等词时,用who不用that,例如:The one who knows me well is Tom.
<2>在分隔型定语从句中,若先行词是人,用 who不用that, 例:
A new teacher will come who will teach you German.
在本句中,先行词“teacher”和修饰限定它的从句 “who will teach you German ”  分离,所以我们用 who 不用 that。
<3>先行词为“there be”结构的主语时,例如
There is a man who wants to see you.
在本句子当中a man是There is a man 这句当中的主语,所以用who不用that
2其中,that 和 which 都可以指物,它们在指物时的区别:
(1) 用that不用which
<1>先行词前有形容词最高级,序数词,all, every, little, no, any,  much, the only, the very, the last 等修饰时,例如:
I have read all the books that you gave me.
   <2>先行词为all, few, nothing, everything, little, much 等不定代词时:
He did all that he could do to help us.
<3>主语以who或which开头时
Who is the man that just called you just now?
<4>关系代词在从句中做表语时
China is not the country that is was.
<5>既指人又指物时
He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited.
2, 先行词表示物时, 用which不用that 的情况
<1> 引导非限制性定语从句时,例如:
She heard a terrible noise, which brought her heart to her mouth.
<2>当关系代词做介词宾语时,例如:
He wrote a book in which he could learn about his life.
在上一例句中,引导词 “which”作了介词 “in”的宾语,所以不可以用 “that”代替.
III由whose, when, where why 等引导的定语从句可参考课本内容。这里简单介绍一下非限制性定语从句和限制性定语从句。非限制性定语从句,从意义上来说,是对主语的补充说明,从结构上来看,先行词和定语从句之间用逗号隔开,He makes great progress in his English learning which makes his mother very happy.
IV 关于as
(1) 在一些结构,如“such …as” “the same…as” “as…as”等结构中,定语从句的引导词经常要用到as,例如
This is not such a book as I expected.
(2) the same as和the same that 的区别。例句:
This is the same tool as I used last time.
This is the same tool that I used last time.
在例句中,第一句的意思是这个工具和我上次用的一样,但是第二句的意思是这就是我上次用的工具
(3) as 和which 的比较
相同点:两者都可以引导非限制性定语从句,先行词都可以是整个句子,都可以在从句中做主语,宾语表语。
不同点<1>as 引导的从句可以放在句首和句尾,而which 引导的从句只可放在句尾。
<2>另外which 还有正如、正象的意思。
As Marx pointed out, labor created man himself.
当先行词,虽然表示时间地点,但是引导词在从句中不是做状语时,而是做宾语时,不能用when, where引导,而只能用that, which 等引导。比较以下两个句字:
I will never forget the days when I first went to Beijing .
I will never forget the days that (which) we spent together.
定语从句的要点及练习
在复合句中,修饰某一个名词或代词,或修饰整个主句的从句叫做定语从句。它位于被修饰的词后面,其作用相当于一个形容词。被修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句常由关系代词who, whom, whose, that, which, as 和关系副词when, where, why 引导。
一、 先行词指人时,关系代词可用who, whom, that。who在从句中只作主语,whom在从句中只作宾语,that在从句中可作主语或宾语,在从句中作宾语的关系代词常被省略。如:
A friend who/that helps you in time of need is a real friend.
The students (whom/that) you teach are now doing experiments.
二、 行词指物时,关系代词用that 或which, 在从句中可作主语或宾语,作宾语时,可省略。如:
These are the trees that/which were planted last year.
Is this the book (that/which)you are looking for?
三、 当先行词指物时,在下列情况下只能用关系代词that, 而不用which:
1、 先行词为all, everything, anything, nothing, something, little, much等不定代词时。如:
It almost seemed as if the good man were trying to teach us all (that) he knew at his last lesson.
2、先行词前有all, every, no, some, little, much, the only, the very 或序数词the first, the last或形容词最高级时。如:
  All the clothes that have been rejected are kept in the back room.
    This is the only book (that) I want to borrow this time.
    The first lesson (that) we are to learn is easy.
    This is the best film (that) I have ever seen.
3、 有两个或两个以上分别表示人和物的先行词时,关系代词用that, 不用who, whom或which。如:
We are talking about the picture and its painter that we saw yesterday.
4、 当主句是以who或which 开头的特殊疑问句时,关系代词用 that,不用who, whom 或which。如:
Who is the boy that is playing with water?
Which of the boys that see is Mrs. Liu’s son?
四、在非限制性定语从句中,当先行词指物时,关系代词用which而不用that;当先行词指人时,只能用who或whom而不能用that;
I was a film yesterday, which is about the First World War.
John, who is ill, can not come to the party.
五、 当从句中的介词提于关系代词之前时,关系代词用whom或which来指代人或物;如:
Here is the article about ________ we are talking.
A. that        B. which        C. what        D. it
六、 当先行词是way时,常用that(有时用in which),也可省去,但不可用where。
思考题(多项选择):
We want to know the way ____________ you learn new words.
A. 不填        B. that         C. in which       D. where
七、 whose 前的先行词多数是指人,也可指物。指物时可与of which 互换,指人时可与of whom 互换。Whose 在定语从句中作定语。如:
The book whose cover is blue belongs to me.
=The book the cover of_________ is blue belongs to me.
Tom is one of the students whose handwriting is the best in our class.
=Tom is one of the students the handwriting of ________ is the best in our class.
八、 先行词是the reason时,关系代词用why,也可省略。如:
That is the reason  (why)  I did it.
思考题(多项选择):
The reason __________ you gave for doing that foolish thing is not reasonable at all.
A. that    B. why     C. which     D. 不填     
九、 先行词是一个表示时间的词如:time, hour, day, month, year时,其所对应的关系词如在定语从句中作时间状语,则用关系副词when ,如果其所对应的关系词在定语从句中作宾语,则用关系代词that/which 或不填。如:
Do you remember the day when Miss Li gave us the first physics class?
Do you remember the day (that/which) we spent together?
注意: 如果time 前面有first ,last, second, third 等序数词,则其表示 “次数”的意思,这时关系代词只用that(可省略),不能用which(序数词在前原则) 或when。如:
   This is the second time (that) I have been here.
思考题(多项选择):
Do you remember the time ___________ we met in the park?
A. that    B. when    C. 不填      D. which
十、 先行词是表示地点的词如: place, house, room, school等时,变化如下:
    思考题(不定项选择)
The house _________ where Mao Zedong once worked is now a museum.
A. where    B. which    C. that        D. for which
Shoe factory is a factory __________ makes shoes.
A. that      B. which    C. where      D. in which
This is the school __________ we visited the other day.
十一、as 引导的定语从句用于the same… as , as … as , so… as 等结构中。As 在定语从句作主语或宾语,如:
I have the same trouble as you (have)
We never heard such songs as are taught on the radio.
思考题:
He is such a clever boy __________ everybody love him.
A. as         B. that       C. which       D. for
As 还可以引导一个非限制性定语从句,表示“正如……那样”。常见有:as you know, as is known to all, as you see, as can be seen, as has been pointed out, as everybody expected, as is expected, as expected……等。可置于主句前或主句后,代替前面或后面提到的事实,在句中作主语或宾语。如:
China has sent up another man-made satellite, as was announced.
思考题:
He won the game , __________ is beyond our expectation.
A. as            B. which           C. that

巩固练习题:
1. Most of the classmates want to know the way _________  he learns new word.
A.  which        B. in which        C. by which        D. about which
2. The international research group was made up of 20 scientists, _______ from China.
A. half of which was  B. three fifths of whom were  C. most of them werer   D. they  were mostly
3. Li Ping isn’t such a boy _____ will tell a lie.
A. who          B. which         C.  like          D. as
4. ________ breaks the law should be punished.
A. No matter who   B. Whoever        C. All        D. Who
5. Is this little shed _____ Tom was born?
A. in where      B. in which     C. the one where    D. the one which
6. The fellow in rags, _____ seemed to say anything, tried to explain that he was not a beggar.
A. about whom     B.  to whom       C. who         D. whom
7. It will not be long before you meet with the same difficult situation _________ by those scientists last year.
A. which was dealt with        B. as was dealt with
C. that was to deal with        D. as had to deal with
8. ________ , the population of China is the largest in the world.
A. It is well known that         B. that is well known
C. which is well known         D. as is well known
9. The bike and its rider ______ had run over an old woman were held up by the policeman.
A. which       B. that         C. it           D. whom
10. She was becoming fat, ____ bothered her very much.
A. which       B. that         C. it           D. of whom
11. There is not much ________ can be done.
A. which       B. that         C. what       D.  /
12. The moon is a world ____ there is no life.
A. which       B. that        C. where        D. on it
13. This is the best film____ has been shown since last year.
A. that         B. which      C. of which     D. /
14. I still remember the very day ____ I first met Mary.
A. on that     B. which      C. when       D.  in which
15. Is that the student ______ you lent your dictionary the other day?
A. who       B. whom      C. that        D. to whom
16. She tells us that Lao Wang is a comrade _____ we can learn a lot.
A. whom      B. that        C. from whom     D. about whom
17. Is this factory _____ you worked five years ago?
A. which     B.  in which    C. the one       D. the one where
18. I don’t like the way _____ he solves the problem.
A. which     B. that         C. by which     D. where
19. The Amazon, _____ lies in the Andes is the world’s longest river.
A. its source     B.  which source      C. whose source    D. the source of it
20. Mike must be from Africa, ____ can be seen from his skin and hair.
A. as        B. which       C. who      D. that
21. The reason ____ I can’t come is ___ I have to work late.
A. for; why     B. why ; because  C.  because ; that  D. why; that
22. Who is the old man ____ is telling the children a story?
A. who         B. whom     C. that         D. whoever
定语从句的用法和精练
一、定语从句的概念
    在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,定语从句一般放在先行词的后面。
    二、定语从句的关系词
    引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词和关系副词,常见的关系代词包括that, which, who(宾格whom,所有格whose)等,关系副词包where, when, why等。关系代词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作定语从句的重要成分。
    三、定语从句的分类
    根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句紧跟先行词,主句与从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去,非限制性定语从句主句与从句之间有逗号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意思仍完整。
    四、关系代词的用法
    1. that 既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:
    Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle.玛丽喜欢轻柔的音乐。(that作主语)
    The coat (that) I put on the desk is blue.我放在桌子上的那件外套是蓝色的。(that作宾语)
    2.which用于指物,在句中作主语或宾语,作主语不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:
    The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.位于火车站附近的那座大楼是一家超市。(作主语)
    The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful. 我们昨天晚上看的那部电影很好看。(作宾语)
    3.who, whom用于指人,who 用作主语,whom用作宾语。在口语中,有时可用who代替whom, 也可省略。例如:
    The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.经常在英语方面帮助我的那个女孩是英国人。(作主语)
    Who is the teacher (whom) Li Ming is talking to? 正在与李明谈话的老师是谁?(作宾语)
    注意:(1)当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who, that, which可省略,但介词在关系代词前时,只能用“介词+which/whom”结构。例如:
    This is the house in which we lived last year.这是我们去年居住的房子。
    Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel.请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。
    (2)含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不可前置,只能放在原来的位置上。例如:
    This is the person whom you are looking for. 这就是你要找的那个人。
    (3)that 作介词的宾语时,介词不能放它的前面,只能放在从句中动词的后面。例如:
    The city that she lives in is very far away.她居住的城市非常远。
    (4)关系词只能用that的情况:
    a. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、基数词、形容词最高级时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:
    He was the first person that passed the exam. 他是第一个通过考试的人。
    b.被修饰的先行词为all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one等不定代词时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:
    Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop? 你在商店里有什么东西要买吗?
    c.先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:
    This is the same bike that I lost.这就是我丢的那辆自行车。
    d. 先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用that, 而不用which.例如:
    I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room.我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。
    e.以who或which引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用that.例如:
    Who is the girl that is crying? 正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁?
    f.主句是there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that,而不用which.例如:
    There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom. 桌子上那本书是汤姆的。
    (5)关系词只能用which,而不用that 的情况:
    a.先行词为that, those时,用which, 而不用that.例如:
    What’s that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么?
    b.关系代词前有介词时,一般用which,而不用that.例如:
    This is the room in which he lives. 这是他居住的房间。
    c.引导非限制性定语从句,用which, 而不用that.例如:
    Tom came back, which made us happy. 汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。
    五、关系副词的用法
    (1)when指时间,其先行词表示时间,在句中作时间状语。例如:
    This was the time when he arrived.这是他到达的时间。
    (2)where指地点,其先行词表示地点,在句中作地点状语。例如:
    This is place where he works.这是他工作的地点。
    (3)why 指原因,其先行词是原因,起原因状语作用。例如:
    Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school. 没人知道他为什么上学总迟到。 
  I.单项填空。
    1. -Do you know the man ______is talking with your father?
    -Yes, he’s our headmaster.
    A. he B. who C. which D. whom
    2. Is this the river _____I can swim?
    A. which B. in which C. that D. the one
    3. This is the best hotel in the city _____I know.
    A. where B. which C. that D. it
    4. Can you lend me the dictionary ______the other day?
    A. that you bought B. you bought it
    C. that you bought it D. which you bought it
    5. Anyone ______with what I said may put up you hands.
    A. which agrees B. who agree
    C. who agrees D. which agree
6. My watch is not the only thing ______ is missing.
    A. that B. it C. which who
    7. The man ______coat is black is waiting at the gate
    A. who’s B. whose C. that of which.
    8. The girl ______ is reading under the tree _____my sister.
    A. which; is B. whom; was C. who; is D. who; was
    9. I love places ______the people are really friendly.
    A. that B. which C. where D. who
    10. The world ______ is made up of matter.
    A. in that we live B. on which we live
    C. where we live in D. we live in
    Ⅱ. 用适当的关系代词that, which, who, whom填空。
    1. The first thing ______you must do is to have a meal.
    2. April 1st is the day _____is called April Fool’s Day in the west.
    3. The family _____had lost everything in a big fire got much help from their friends.
    4. The house _____we live in is very old.
    5. Didn’t you see the man ______I talked with just now?

  答案:CBCAC   ABCCB   That ,which ,which ,who ,whom

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