8号彩票中心陪你学习英语中的状语从句


来源:北一仁 日期:2012-8-5
 

 

 

8号彩票陪你学习英语中的状语从句

状语从句由从属连词(subordinating conjunctions)引导。注意状语从句与主句之间的逻辑关系,选择正确的连词;有些连词能引导多种状语从句。

    一、时间状语从句

  引导时间状语从句的从属连词主要有:after as before once, since till until when whenever while as soon as;另外有些词如:immediately(立刻) directly(直接的) instantly(立即地)用于as soon as 意义时,有些名词词组如 the moment(片刻) the instant(立即的) the minute the day the year every time next time,each time 等也用来引导时间状语从句:

  The mother didn't go to bed until her little daughter returned home last night. 昨晚母亲等到她的小女儿回家才睡觉。

    I'll explain it to you immediately I've finished reading the letter. 我读完信立刻给你解释。

You see the lightning __________it happens but you hear the thunder later.

    A the instant(立即)       B for an instant

    C on the instant(马上)     D in an instant(马上)

    闪电一发生,你立刻就能看到它,但雷声,你迟一点才能听到它。(B41997.1-38 A对。)

  No sooner ... than hardly/scarcely/barely ... when 也用来引导状语从句,意思是…………”;如果将no sooner hardly, scarcely barely放在句首,就用倒装结构。例:

 

  I had hardly entered the temple when it began to rained. 我刚踏进那座庙就开始下雨了。

    _________when she started complaining.

    ANot until he arrived    BNo sooner had he arrived

    CHardly had he arrived   DScarcely did he arrived

    B61990.1-49,C对。)他一到,她就开始抱怨。

    No sooner had we reached the top of the hill_________we all sat down to rest.

    A when   B then   C than   D until

    我们一到山顶,大家都坐下来休息。(B41991.6-62 C对。)

    when while once until,till 等后接介词短语或形容词,相当于这些词引导的状语从句:

Hiram had read Lu Xun's works when he was in London. 海勒姆在伦敦时就读过鲁迅的作品。

When whenever where wherever 常常后接 possible necessary :

She tried her best to speak English whenever possible. 只要可能,她就尽量说英语。

    二、地点状语从句

    引导地点状语从句的主要有:where, wherever- where构成的复合词。例:

    Although he knew little about the large amount of work done in the field he succeeded_________other more well-in formed experimenters failed.

    A which   B that   C what   Dwhere

    虽然在此领域内的许多工作他知道的很少,但是,在比他知道得更多的实验者失败的地方,他却成功了。(B41998.1-40 D对。)

    We received a warm welcome everywhere we arrived.我们每一个地方都受到热烈的欢迎。

  三、原因状语从句

  最常用的连词是:because since as now that), seeing that consider that ;注意 in that是复合连词,意思是because……方面”; since也用来引导原因状语从句。例:

    _________ we have finished the course we shall start doing more revision work.

    A For now B Now that CEver since D By now

    既然我们已经学完了这门课,我们就可开始花更多的时间去复习了。(B4,1990.1-62 B对。)

    Seeing that it is raining hard tonight we'll have to stay here . 今晚下这么大的雨,我们只好在这里过夜了。

    Liquids are like solids__________they have a definite volume.

    A in that B for that C with that D at that

    液体就象固体一样,因为它有一定的体积。(B41995.6-58 A对。)

    四、目的状语从句

    主要的引导词有:so that in order that so,less in case 等。目的状语从句常常含有情态动词。例:

    They are hurrying so that / in order that they may not miss the train. 他们为了赶上火车而匆匆忙忙。

    He wrote down my name for fear that / less he should forget it. 他记下了我的名字,以免忘记。

    五、条件状语从句

    1.最常用的引导词有: if if onlyif 的强调式),unless as long as so long as in case providing provide that), supposing in the event that on condition that)等:

I'll accept any job__________I don't have to get up early.

    A lest   B as long as C in case D though

    只要不让我早起,什么工作我都可以接受。(94.1-60B对。)

  Government cannot operate effectively__________it is free from such interference.

    A so long as B so that C unless D because

    政府无法有效地运作,除非它不受这种干扰。(94.1-53 C对。)

  I'm sure he is up to the job__________he would give his mind to it.

    A if only B in case C until   D unless

  只要他用心,我相信他能胜任这工作。(98.1-45 A对。)

  I'm sorry you've decided not to go with us on the river trip but__________you change your mind there will still be enough room on the boat for you.

    A even      B nevertheless   C in the even that    D provided that

    2000年全国大学生英语竞赛决赛题,C对。) 很遗憾你已经决定不参加我们的河流旅行;但是如果你现在改变主意,船上还是有你的位置。

  2.provided that)是书面语,有时与if 同义,有时有区别。provided that)常常表示说话人所希望的条件, if 不一定有此含义:

  We can sell a lot of garments provided /if your price is highly competitive.如果你方服装价格很有竞争性,我们就能大量出售。

  Provided / If we receive your order by 30 October we make you a firm offer for delivery by the middle of November at the price quoted. 如果我方在十月三十日前收到你方定单,就可以给你实盘,按所报价格,十一月中旬发货。

  We shall cancel the contract if you fail to open the L/C before the end of this month.如果你方在本月有不能开出信用证,我们就撤

  销合同。(if不能换成provided,fail to open the L/C...不是we 希望出现的情况。)

  3.unless if...not 的比较:

  unless 有时等于if...not,例:

  Don't come unless I telephone. = Don't come if I don't telephone. 如果我不打电话,就不要来。

然而,unless的语气比 if...not 更强,往往表达最后通牒或类似的意思:

  Unless you return these books to the library immediately you will have to pay a fine. 除非你立刻把书还给图书馆,否则你就要被罚款。

  如果if 从句表达的是一种非真实的情况,就不能用unless来替换,这是因为unless总是表示在某种条件下”:

  She'd be a good wife if she didn't smoke. 如果她不抽烟,她会是个好妻子。(因为她抽烟,所以她不是好妻子。)

  Unless 还用在破折号之后,添补一种例外的特殊情况”,这种句子不能用 if ... not替换:

  He couldn't have seen the accident -- unless he had been in London. 他不可能目睹这一事故---- 除非他当时在伦敦。(他没有目睹这一事故,因为他不在伦敦。)

  试比较:

  He couldn't have seen the accident if he hadn't been in Beijing. 如果他不在北京,他就不可能目睹这一事故。(他目睹了这一事故,因为他当时在北京。)

    六、让步状语从句

  主要的引导词有:though although even if even though in spite of the fact that despite the fact that, 与及“whever”词和“no matter wh-”。例:

  Nowadays we know that everything he wrote was true even though some of it was second-hand information. 现在我们知道了:他所写的一切都是真的,尽管其中有些是间接得来的信息。

  However troublesome the problem is he always faces it with pa-tience. 不管问题多么棘手,他总是耐心面对它们。

  When anyone does something for you no matter how small and no matter whether he is a superior or servant it is proper to say “ thank you”. 当有人为你办了事,不管这事多么微不足道,也不管他是你的上级还是服务员,你说一声谢谢总是得体的。

  If only the nature of the aging process is better understood the possibility of discovering a medicine that can block the fundamental process of aging seems very remote.

  2000年全国大学生英语竞赛决赛题) A,应改为Even if。 即使衰老的过程理解得更透彻了,发现一种能够阻止衰老的基本进程的药仍然非常渺茫。(even是个副词,可以用来强调if,even if even though 用来引导让步状语从句。)

  while 也可以引导让步状语从句,其意义相当于 although:

  While I understand what you say I can't agree with you.尽管我理解你说的话,但是我不能同意你的看法。

    七、方式状语从句

  主要由as as if as though,in the same way as 来引导,在非正式文体中,也用like(= in the same way ):

  Please do the exercises as I show you. 请按照我演示给你看的办法去做练习。

  Tom was behaving as though he had grown up. 汤姆现在的表现好象他已经长大了。

  Melted iron is poured into the mixer much__________tea is poured into a cup from a teapot.

    A in the same way like   B in the same way which

    C in the same way       D in the same way as

  熔化的铁水倒进搅拌机中,很象是把茶壶里的水倒进茶杯。(B41996.6-48 D对。)

  as 引导的方式状语从句中,常常省略去一部分;“as + 过去分词的结构是很常见的:

  Should the Chinese firm fail to deliver the Gear Boxes in time as contracted all the losses thus incurred shall be borne by them. 如中国公司未能按合同规定时间交货,应负担一切由此而产生的损失。(as contracted = as it contracted)

  The import prices show a 4% rise in average as compared with the average price level in the first six months.与头6个月的平均价格相比,进口价增长了百分之四。(as compared = as it is compared

  Careful surveys have indicated that as many as 50 percent of patient do not take drugs      directed.

    A like   B so    C which   D as

  认真的调查已经表明:多达百分之五十的病人没有按照医嘱服药。(B4,1996.1-37 D对。 as directed = as they are directed

    八、比较状语从句

    主要由than as...as引导,这类从句常常有一些成分没有表示出来:

    They usually have less money at the end of the month than __________at the beginning.

    A which is B which was C they have D it is

    通常到了月底,他们的钱就比月初少了。(B41993.6-54C对。)

    She is__________a musician than her brother.

    A much of B much as C more of D more as

    她比她兄弟更懂音乐。(B41993.6-65C对。)

    On the top of a mountain our lung would not take in as much oxygen at each breath as they would at the bottom. 在山顶,我们的肺每次呼吸吸入的氧气没有在山脚时吸入那么多。

    九、结果状语从句

    可以由 so that so...that such...that 引导,这类从句也可以理解为表示程度的状语从句:

    She told me__________story that we all forgot about the time.

    A such an interesting   B such interesting a

    C so an interesting    D a so interesting

    so 副词        such 代词       so副词 后跟 形容词, such代词后跟 名词

    (全国高考,1988A对。)她给我们讲了一个有趣的故事,我们把时间都忘了。

    He was so angry that he left the room without a word. 他很生气,一句话不说就离开了房间。

    十、if 从句的理解和翻译

    if从句不一定表示条件,它可以用来表示althougheven if相似的意思;当然,它所表示的让步”,没有thougheven if 的语气那么重。例:

  If she is poor at least she is honest. 她虽说穷,却至少诚实。

  You must come in if only it's only for a minute.你必须进来,哪怕是一会儿。

  He is a very good man if rather dull.他虽然迟钝,却是个大好人。

  His style if manned is pleasant to read.他的文章风格,虽然有点矫揉造作,读起来还是令人感到愉快的。

  The profits if a little lower than last year's are still extremely healthy. 利润虽然比去年低点,却仍然是丰厚的。

  I'll finish this report if it kills me. 我即使死了,也要完成这个报告。

  if 从句中的主语和动词都可以省略:

  He's a pleasant if awkward lad. 他是一个虽然笨拙然而却惹人喜欢的小伙子。(...even if he is awkward )

  主句里出现as...as很常见,这时if从句里用否定:

  John plays football__________if not better than David.

    A as well B as well as C so well D so well as

    1994年高考试题,B是答案。) 论踢足球,虽然约翰并不比大卫踢得更好,但至少他们踢得一样好。

His health is as poor as if not poorer than, his sister. 他的身体虽然说不比他的姐姐更差,但至少也是跟她一样差。 赞同

一、when“……,引导时间状语从句时,从句用于表示主句动作发生的特定时间。如:

The days get longer when spring comes. = When spring comes, the days get longer.

春天到来时,白天变得更长了。

二、before“……之前,引导时间状语从句时,表示主句动作发生在从句动作之前。如:

Close the door before you leave the room.

离开房间前关上门。

三、after“……之后,引导时间状语从句时,表示主句的动作发生在从句的动作之后。如:

I went to school after I finished my breakfast.

吃完早饭后我就去上学了。

四、as soon as“…………”,引导时间状语从句时,表示主句动作紧接着从句动作发生。如:

I’ll call you as soon as I get home.

我一到家就给你打电话。

五、until, till“直到,引导时间状语从句。当主句谓语动词是延续性动词时,主句常用肯定形式;当主句谓语动词是非延续性动词时,主句要用否定形式,即“not…until/till…”意为直到…………”。如:

I’ll wait here until/till the rain stops.

我将在这里等着,直到雨停。

You can’t go home until/till you finish your work.

直到你完成你的工作,你才能回家。

下面再向大家透露点儿内幕消息,状语从句的两手绝活——时态的呼应和从句的位置。请看:

一、时态呼应

一般来讲,复合句都要遵循主、从句时态呼应规律,状语从句也不例外。即主句用现在时,从句也用现在时;主句用过去时,从句也用过去的某种时态。如:

Be careful when you cross the road.

过马路时要小心。

You must see the doctor if you are ill.

如果你生病了,你必须去看医生。

主句是一般过去时,从句也要用一般过去时。如:

When he was seven years old, he could swim.

当他七岁时就会游泳。

She turned off the light before she left the office.

她离开办公室前就关了灯。

二、主从句的位置。

大多数情况下,从句可以位于主句之前,也可以位于主句之后。不过从句在前时,主从句之间必须用逗号隔开。如:

Please tell me when he comes back. = When he comes back, please tell me

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